Alopecia areata is characterized by one or more round bald areas. They are of different diameter, usually localized on the scalp (capillitium), and sometimes, but less often, at some other body part (eyebrows, beard, moustache, arms or legs). On the edges of affected areas, hair can easily be plucked out.
Etiology of alopecia areata is unknown. Although many cases have occurred after strong emotional stress, until now a stress-induced pathogenesis of alopecia areata has not been proven. All cases of alopecia areata have, until ten years ago, been tested in relation to focus (dental focus, chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis), but recently focuses have not been considered that important. Alopecia areata can be detected in several members of a family (not at the same time, of course). There are many opinions on the genetic disposition of alopecia areata, some authors have found a positive family anamnesis in as much as 27 % of all patients suffering from alopecia areata, while other authors deny any family disposition.
In view of the current concept of ethiopathogenesis of alopecia areata, it is believed that autoimmune mechanism of hair follicle components is especially important. More and more facts prove that alopecia areata is a disorder of autoimmune origin. Histopathological results prove the existence of lymphocytic infiltrate surrounding the hair bulbus in areas affected by alopecia areata. By method of direct immunofluorescent technique ( DIF ), deposits of C3 components are found in hair follicles in most cases. Alopecia areata may, as an exception, be accompanied by a thymus function imbalance, autoimmune thyreoiditis Hashimoto or vitiligo. The autoimmune theory is also supported by the anti – HF – antibodies against hair follicle found in patients suffering from alopecia areata in high titre in serum, as well as low values of nucleus membrane glycoprotein CD 44 of sweat glands in areas affected by alopecia areata, that take part in regulating the immunological feedback at the cellular level.
The latest research by monoclonal antibody method has shown the existence of decreased cytokeratine 16 expression ( CK-16 ) of hair follicles in areas affected by alopecia areata. Since cytokeratine, which in normal follicles can be found in inner hair layer and dermal papilla, is a marker of epithelial differentiation, this poses the question of epithelial proliferation imbalance during the hair growth cycle in alopecia areata ethiopathogenesis.
Alopecia areata is characterized by a sudden appearance of limited round and oval alopetic areas of different diameter. The number of this areas is different, there may be one or more. If they spread peripherally, they may encompass a bigger capillitium surface. If there are more alopetic areas spreading, they may connect forming bigger alopetic areas of irregular form, or, less often, cause total alopecia that can usually be seen on capillitium. Alopetic area enveloping the occipital capillitium region is called ophyasis. Ophyasis is considered a bad prognostic sign, since it usually indicates total alopecia tendencies in cases of classic therapy, while therapy with Marbo products solves this problem in 95 % cases.
Although alopecia areata is usually seen on the capillitium, it may affect any skin region: eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, moustache, body, arms, legs, and exceptionally, all areas, which causes universal alopecia (alopecia universalis).
Spontaneous hair growth in bald areas may occur in a few months. First changes are usually seen after 3 – 6 weeks, and then in different time cycles.
Alopecia areata is usually a benign, chronic hair disease, and its causes have not been definitely proven. Alopecia areata may occur without previous warning, in both sexes, in any age group, usually between 20-40 years of age. Occurrence of clearly limited areas, bald patches, is a characteristic symptom. In 60% patients suffering from alopecia areata, the baldness starts in capillitium, with bald patches of around 0.5 mm – 1 cm in diameter. Hair skin shows no change in colour, and hair surrounding the affected area can easily be plucked out. After the occurrence of the first bald patch, usually there are more, which will in time connect and form a larger bald area.
Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, which is a frequent characteristic in patients suffering from alopecia areata, may be the only indication. After the initial changes, alopecia areata may take a different course.
Hair growth may begin in one area, and progress in other areas. In the beginning, hairs are thin and not well pigmented, while later on they assume the usual thickness and colour. Emotional stress usually precedes the occurrence of new, or worsens the existing changes in patients suffering from alopecia areata.
Cases in which the occurrence of bald patches is the cause of emotional stress are an exception.
There are different opinions on causes of alopecia areata. Most experts believe that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder, and that genetic factors are crucial in the course and prognosis.
The fact that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder is also supported by the fact that it is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune diseases.
The predominant number of alopecia areata cases have good prognosis. In classic cases, there are chances of hair growth which should occur within first 6 months. There are no rules. In classic medicine, it is generally known that there is no definite cure, since in different patients, there are different factors affecting the course and prognosis of this disorder. Therefore, MARBO ACTIVATOR, combined with the other two Marbo products, is a unique product guaranteeing hair growth in a very high percentage, and its use is very simple. Unlike other medical products recommended in treating alopecia areata which have many unwanted side effects, contraindications and interactions with other medicinal products, MARBO ACTIVATOR is completely safe (even for children), nontoxic, does not react when used with other medicinal products and does not leave hair looking greasy